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Common Goals

The common goal of my physicians’ discourse community is state as such “Its public goal is to improve the wellbeing of man and to improve treatments of health conditions. The medical communicates over a number of forums and discussions, which will be covered later. The physicians discourse community has a number of journals and book published in order to exchange knowledge. The Analysis of Physicians Discourse Community. The community has a common interest and knowledge of the human body. Specialized terminology in Medical discourse is always changing and required to know, which will be covered later.” (Swales, 2021). All these goals fit into one big purpose which is to help people together.

Physician Caporuscio agreed to the common goals of the physicians discourse community.

Participatory

Mechanisms

The Physician’s discourse community uses a lot of venues where they receive and publish most of their research. Some of these venues are; Web of Science, PubMed Central, MEDLINEplus, Consumer Health Complete and Cochrane Library. (guides.lib.wayne.edu, 2021)

Web of Science is a medical database that provides thousands of journals and manuscripts to access. For example, research on medical conditions such as heart failure. PubMed Central is also a medical journal database. It serves as a resource for physicians to get full-text archive of science journals. MEDLINEplus is a database that provides information on health conditions, drugs, genetics, medical tests, medical encyclopedia in easy to read format. Consumer Health Complete is similar to the previous database as it provides information on health conditions, mainstream and holistic medicine in easy to understand format.

Physician Caporuscio commented: since medicine is always changing he likes to use these databases on a weekly basis to review the current trends in medicine and be up to date on new medical treatments and medicines.

Contemporary Major Topics

The major topics within the discourse community right now are: cancer, diabetes Mellitus, infections, genetic birth defects, injuries and wounds, mental health and behavior, metabolic problems, poisoning, toxicology, environmental health pregnancy and reproduction, and substance abuse problems. Some common terminology used within the medical discourse community is; abrasion, BM(bowel movement), acute, edema, hypertension, contusion, malignant, CIWA, etc.

According to Physician Caporuscio “one significant change in the field of study was COVID-19. The pandemic has made it so majority of the research done at this time was to fend against COVID-19 and try to keep people alive since so little was known in the beginning. Luckily, now with more research, we are able to understand and better treat patients with COVID-19.”

Communication Mechanisms

Reports

Reports are important communicative practices for physicians. Reports are constructed in a way where it highlights important information about a patient. They are organized usually in the following categories such as: situation where it provides the current condition of the patient, background where it provided previously medical conditions and family information, assessment where the physicians give detail on what they did and found, and lastly recommendations where the current physicians give recommends medications or next care plan to the receiving physician. These reports are extremely important especially in fast pace work environments like the hospital where a physician might not have enough time to go complete through a patient’s chart.

Reports are seen everywhere in the medical field especially in the hospital environment. Since physicians are constantly changing in the hospital, they are required to give report to the oncoming physician. Also, when patients need to see a specialist, they are also required to get report, so they know what they are expecting when they receive the patient. Reports are extremely helpful because they highlight the important information about a patient and contain what the previous physician did. In addition to that it is quite helpful for the receiving physician to ask questions that they could not ask relatively fast if they did not get report.

Communication Mechanism cont.

Interview

Another communitive practice for physicians is interviews. Interviews are when the physician interviews the patient. This is done when a physician meets the patient for the first time. How this is done is in the steps of, current symptoms, what lead up to the first symptoms, prior medical histories, medications, family background and diagnoses. These questions are asked to the patient so the physician can gather the correct information in order to make a diagnosis to treat the patient. These types of interview can be organized in different ways, but it doesn’t matter as long as all the information is reviewed by the physician.

Interviews are used in the medical field a lot. They are usually part of every doctor visit because its important on gathering information about one’s patients. Interviewing a patient can help understand what the patient is going through so the physician can provided the proper treatment needed for them. For example, while conducting an interview with a patient physician Caporuscio stated he was able to figure out that the patient was a suicide risk while talking to them, something he would not have been able to figure out if he didn’t talk to the patient and picked up the little clues.  

Communitive Mechanisms cont.

Nurse and Physician Communication

Physician to Nurse communication is another important communitive practice for physicians. This communitive practice is the written and verbal communication between the nurse and physician. This is extremely important since nurses carry out orders from the physicians and since the nurse spends more time with the patients. The communication between the two contain, acting orders such as meds and procedures, discharge orders, voicing the patients concerns to the doctors, family requests, and overall current care of the patient. The organization of these communications depends on the hospitals and the nurse and physicians themselves. Usually these are written very professional because they are medical records that are filed.

Physician and nurse communications are extremely important in the medical field. Since the nurse spends more time with the patient than the doctor it usually means that the nurse knows the patient better. This is one of the reasons why the communication between the nurse and physicians are so important because sometimes the nurse acts as the voice of the patient. Nurses are the ones who give out meds and conduct some procedures and to do these produces the physicians have to put direct orders in. Without the proper communication between the nurse and physician it may cause some medical malpractices since medicine is a highly detailed working environment. Physicians Caporuscio also agreed to the importance of physician and nurse communication.

Key Research Topics

Physicians are in change of bettering patients’ health. They diagnose and treat all different types of health problems, most of which take a toll on the physicians themselves. Being a physician comes hand in hand with extreme stress, sleep deprivation, lack of social life, and mental health problems. Physicians work extremely long hours even on holidays, which means that they spend more time at their job than they do elsewhere. A lot of physicians do not know how to destress or just do not have the time to. Burnout is an extremely worrisome problem in the healthcare field. It is defined as extreme exhaustion, decreased work efficiency, and overall decrease in physician’s mental health.

Physicians that suffer from burnout also suffer from mental health problems such as depression that could lead to suicide. They are also in risk of other types of physical health problems like heart diseases and diabetes. Studies have shown that different specialties like trauma doctors, surgeons, and ER doctors, suffer from higher burnout rates compared to family doctors and dermatologist. In addition, institutional stress is also a huge factor that results in increased burnout rates due to pressure from higher authorities and the constant pressure of being the best. Some solutions of burnout are institutional support, work life balance, stress management, therapy, etc. Overall, burnout is a huge problem within the healthcare community that needs more attention shined on it.

Annotated Bibliography

Windover AK, Martinez K, Mercer MB, Neuendorf K, Boissy A, Rothberg MB. Correlates and Outcomes of Physician Burnout Within a Large Academic Medical Center. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(6):856–858. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0019

This source is used to help explain burnout and the causes of it. Also, it provides information on how burnout is measured in three domains which are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. This source goes into depth about each domain and how they correlate with physicians and burnout.

Rabatin, Joseph et al. “Predictors and Outcomes of Burnout in Primary Care Physicians.” Journal of primary care & community health vol. 7,1 (2016): 41-3. doi:10.1177/2150131915607799

This source provides research on how physicians physical health is affected because of burnout. It gives examples on the type of medical problems that they are faced because of burnout. Also, the studies that are done in this source give proper statistics on the number of physicians that face health conditions because of burnout.

Schwenk TL, Gold KJ. Physician Burnout—A Serious Symptom, But of What? JAMA. 2018;320(11):1109–1110. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.11703

This source provides a basic understanding of what burnout is in physicians. This source also gives a different viewpoint by stated other studies that have been done and what their findings were. Also, it explains how different specialties have different burnout rates.

Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD, West CP. Address Physician Burnout By Restoring Control of Health Care to Physicians—Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(2):334–335. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.6004

This source helps explain burnout by giving subtopics that synthesize with mental health and burnout in physicians. This source is a great resource in getting a different viewpoint in which the physician has no control over, such as institutional stress.

Windover AK, Martinez K, Mercer MB, Neuendorf K, Boissy A, Rothberg MB. Correlates and Outcomes of Physician Burnout Within a Large Academic Medical Center. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(6):856–858. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0019

This source gives solutions on how burnout can be solved or at least decrease the rate in physicians. This source conducts studies in which they see that institutional stress increase burnout rate while institutional support decreases the burnout rate.

Anne Rhodes, R. Liisa Jaakkimainen, Susan Bondy, Kinwah Fung, Depression and mental health visits to physicians—a prospective records-based study, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 62, Issue 4, 2006, Pages 828-834

This source is based on a study where they see how many physicians get help for their mental health issues. This source helps to provide statistics on how many physicians have mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Also it provides a different viewpoint on female and male physicians

Bibliography

Anne Rhodes, R. Liisa Jaakkimainen, Susan Bondy, Kinwah Fung, Depression and mental health visits to physicians—a prospective records-based study, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 62, Issue 4, 2006, Pages 828-834

Daniel Marchalik, Jacob Brems, Ariel Rodriguez, John H. Lynch, Jamie Padmore, Lambros Stamatakis, Ross Krasnow, The Impact of Institutional Factors on Physician Burnout: A National Study of Urology Trainees, Urology, Volume 131, 2019, Pages 27-35

Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD, West CP. Address Physician Burnout By Restoring Control of Health Care to Physicians—Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(2):334–335. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.6004

Gold, Katherine J. (2016). ““I would never want to have a mental health diagnosis on my record”: A survey of female physicians on mental health diagnosis, treatment, and reporting”. General hospital psychiatry (0163-8343), 43 , p. 51.

Hamidi, Maryam S., et al. “Estimating Institutional Physician Turnover Attributable to Self-Reported Burnout and Associated Financial Burden: A Case Study.” BMC Health Services Research 18 (2018)ProQuest. Web. 14 Feb. 2021.

Rabatin, Joseph et al. “Predictors and Outcomes of Burnout in Primary Care Physicians.” Journal of primary care & community health vol. 7,1 (2016): 41-3. doi:10.1177/2150131915607799

Rotenstein LS, Torre M, Ramos MA, et al. Prevalence of Burnout Among Physicians: A Systematic Review. JAMA. 2018;320(11):1131–1150. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.12777

Stanetić, Kosana, et al. “Analysis of Stress Level and Burnout Syndrome among Physicians of Different Medical Specialties in Primary Health Care.” Biomedicinska Istraživanja, vol. 10, no. 1, 2019, pp. 38-46.

Schwenk TL, Gold KJ. Physician Burnout—A Serious Symptom, But of What? JAMA. 2018;320(11):1109–1110. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.11703

Schaufeli, Wilmar B. (09/01/2001). “on the clinical validity of the maslach burnout inventory and the burnout measure”. Psychology & health (0887-0446), 16 (5), p. 565.

West, CP, Dyrbye, LN, Shanafelt, TD. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA). Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions (Review). J Intern Med 2018; 283: 516– 529.

Windover AK, Martinez K, Mercer MB, Neuendorf K, Boissy A, Rothberg MB. Correlates and Outcomes of Physician Burnout Within a Large Academic Medical Center. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(6):856–858. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0019

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